Industrial lasers cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials. Welding often generates gases and smoke containing particles of various types of oxides. Many processes produce gases (most commonly carbon dioxide and ozone, but others as well) that can prove dangerous if ventilation is inadequate. Plasma (Arc) Cutting allows cutting of metals that could not be flame cut, such as stainless steel, aluminum and copper.
Welding, Plasma Cutting & Laser Cutting Fumes
Welding often generates gases and smoke containing particles of various types of oxides. The size of the particles can influence the toxicity of the fumes, with smaller particles presenting a greater danger. Additionally, many processes produce gases (most commonly carbon dioxide and ozone, but others as well) that can prove dangerous if ventilation is inadequate.
The generation rate of fumes and gases varies with the composition of the base metal, fluxes, and fillers, and with the rate and depth of welding or cutting. Exposure to the operator varies with the generation rate, duration and frequency of operations, work practices (particularly distance of the plume from the breathing zone), and the effectiveness of ventilation.
Arc Welding uses an electric arc between a consumable or non-consumable electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. The welding region is sometimes protected by inert or semi-inert gases (shielding gas), and/or an evaporating filler material. Arc welding is widely used because of its low capital and running costs.
Developed in the 1950's, Plasma (Arc) Cutting allows cutting of metals that could not be flame cut, such as stainless steel, aluminum and copper. Plasma cutting uses electrically conductive gas to transfer energy through the plasma torch to the material being cut. Plasma gases include argon, hydrogen, nitrogen and mixtures, plus air and oxygen.
Laser Cutting is typical in industrial manufacturing applications, but is starting to be popular with schools, small businesses and hobbyists. Laser cutting directs the output of a high-power laser at the material. The material then melts or burns, and a gas blows the residue away from the cut, leaving an edge with a high-quality surface finish. Industrial lasers cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials. When compared to plasma or flame cutting, laser cutting utilizes a much more focused or smaller cut, so it puts much less heat into the workpiece and removes a narrower path of material. This allows the laser to cut precise parts to a higher tolerance and with less taper on the cut edge.
Choose a hood design in the following descending order of effectiveness:
- Enclosing hoods are by far the most effective in controlling welding contaminants; however, they restrict access and force reconsideration of material and product handling.
- Capturing hoods are less effective than enclosures but can be adequate if properly used.
General ventilation filters the air in the entire room to reduce the airborne fume concentration. Consider this method only if source capture is not possible and/or practical. Because general ventilation does not remove fume at the source, it does not limit exposure at the worker’s breathing zone.
Dust Collectors for Welding, Plasma Cutting & Laser Cutting Applications
Because of the variation in welding, plasma cutting and laser cutting applications (airflow, loading, fume properties), multiple dust collectors can be suitable. The Donaldson® Torit® PowerCore® TG collector series is the latest breakthrough product to revolutionize the approach to dust collectors for welding, plasma cutting & laser cutting. It combines an ultra-high efficient filter with a “smaller and smarter” footprint and the lowest maintenance cost in the industry. Traditionally, cartridge collectors are a traditional type of collector due to the small nature of the particulate size in fume. The Donaldson Torit Downflo® Oval Cartridge Collector is the recognized leader in this category, and is the proud winner of Filtration Products “Product of the Year”.
LEGISLATION (OTHER FEDERAL AND LOCAL LEGISLATION MAY APPLY)
- US EPA
Particulate Matter (PM):
- PM 2.5 = 15 µg/m3 (annual), and 35 µg/m3 (24-hour)
- PM 10 = 150 µg/m3 (24-hour)
- OSHA Regulations
- 29 CFR 1910.1000 - Air Contaminants, NOTE: Twenty-five states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have OSHA-approved State Plans and have adopted their own standards and enforcement policies. For the most part, these States adopt standards that are identical to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted different standards applicable to this industry or may have different enforcement policies.
- 29 CFR 1910.1000: Welding Air Contaminants
- 29 CFR 1915.51: Welding Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating
Industrial Ventilation Manual
NIOSH Publication No. 76-179
AP-42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Chapter 9
AP-42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Cahpter 12